Newsletter n°22

“Radiation monitoring of inhabitants and their food stuffs in Chernobyl zone of Belarus”
Series: “Chernobyl accident” (Minsk, 2002).

Introduction

In this bulletin the expert conclusion of academician D.M.Grodzinsky (Ukraine), corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus V.B.Nesterenko and academician A.V.Yablokov (Russia) on the Report of the United Nations 2002 “Humanitarian consequences of accident on the Chernobyl NPP Strategy of rehabilitation” is submitted. The conclusion shows, that experts of the United Nations have not taken into account the research of the Ukrainian, Russian and Belarusian scientists of long-term influence of an internal irradiation on health of inhabitants of Chernobyl regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine at the expense of the consumption of local food stuffs containing radionuclides of caesium-137, etc. They have biassedly presented the available data on multifactor negative consequences of Chernobyl accident on health of the population.
In the Report of World Bank “Belarus. The review of consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP and programs of their overcoming” is again affirmed: “It is unequivocally affirmed that growth of number of cases of a cancer of a thyroid gland among children is the result of the radioactive irradiation. Other long-term medical consequences for the peoples influenced by various doses of a radioactive irradiation are the subject of finding out”.
Causes a deep regret, that in the Report of World Bank the rich actual material of the Belarusian, Ukrainian and Russian scientists and, first of all, physicians on studying medical consequences from influence within 16 years of small doses of radiation on health of the population (especial of children) practically is not used.
The most valuable part of the Chernobyl program regarding radiation protection of children is the organization of children’s feeding at schools and kindergartens. Therefore the offer of the deputy minister of the finance stated on Parliamentary hearings on April, 24 2002 on rationalization of charges on feeding of children at the expense of reduction of free of charge feeding of children to one meal a day, and allocation of the money saved on a children's feeding on purchasing of agricultural machinery (about 10 million dollars) seems strange and shocking.
Such statements and offers are similar to the statement of General director of IAEA Hans Blix in August 1986 that in view of “strategic importance of nuclear power the accident such as on the Chernobyl NPP can be experienced by mankind annually”.
The recognition by the World Bank, structures of the United Nations that the acceptance in the sixtieth years of the last century of the program of development of nuclear power was a tragic mistake of the most advanced and leading countries of the world, would be represented duly and proved. And today an acceptance of the effective program of protection and rehabilitation of inhabitants of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, injured from Chernobyl accident would be justified.
The World Bank, as well as Belarus, could be initiator of creation in the United Nations of the Insurance fund for injured from accidents on the nuclear power stations. Already there were accidents on the nuclear power station in Chernobyl (Ukraine), Salafields (England), Three Mile Island (USA). Now in the world more than 430 nuclear reactors on the NPP continue to work, they grow old, the risk of accidents grows.
The insurance fund should be created at the expense of obligatory deductions from the profits received from realization of the electric power of the nuclear power station by the countries – the owners of the nuclear power station (as objects of high risk). This fund should reallocate means for radiation protection of the population injured from nuclear catastrophes, and for scientific researches on minimization of consequences of such accidents for health of the population.
Determining part of the medical researches should be the international projects by definition of the dose dependence of diseases from the level of accumulation of radionuclides in an organism of the people. It is a key way on an establishment of causal dependence of illnesses from consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP. The professor, doctor of medical sciences Yu.I.Bandazhevsky has had time to establish dose dependence of infringements of an electrocardiogram of heart, diseases of eyes, etc. Continuation of joint activities on measurement on a whole body counter (WBC) of levels of accumulation of radionuclides in an organism of children and on establishment of medical consequences for health of an internal irradiation of an organism of the people at the expense of constant incorporation of radionuclides of caesium-137 with the contaminated food is necessary.
Joint realization of radio ecological education of the population and training is necessary for implementation of simple methods of radiating protection and prevention of incorporation radionuclides in organism of people with food contaminated by radionuclides. It will provide minimization of a collective doze of an irradiation and reduction of harm to their health.
In the state structures of three countries necessity of reception of enterosorbents for sorption and removing of radionuclides from an organism of animals is already recognized. It is necessary to realize the same thing for people in regions injured by Chernobyl. In Ukraine, the Ministry of Health has directive ordered to use to medical services pertinacious food additives as a way of purification of an organism of the people from radionuclides and heavy metals. Similar decisions should be accepted in Belarus. It is necessary to introduce in practice of radiating protection of the population application, within a month, of pectin food additives not less than 4 times in a year (quarterly) with check on WBC of its productivity and definition of priorities.
Emergency values of the permissible contents of caesium-137 in milk for adults up to 1,000 Bq/l and for children up to 400 Bq/l, established by the European Community on the basis of factors of risk according to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, are unacceptable for the regions injured by Chernobyl accident. For a long-term chronic radiating irradiation after Chernobyl accident these values should be reduced at 10-20 times. Sad demographic consequences of Chernobyl accident on the population of Belarus give the countries of the West a unique opportunity to specify values and practical guidance on radiating safety and protection of the population against the future failures on the nuclear power plant.
Catastrophic deterioration of health of children of Belarus in 16 years after Chernobyl accident (85% of healthy children in 1985 and 20% – 2001 allows to approve, that they are ill not from stress, not from radio phobia, not from mass resettlement (140 thousand people from 2.5 million), but from long action of small doses of radiation and, from constant consumption of contaminated food stuffs. Because of impossibility by forces of one country to provide the population of Chernobyl regions and all Belarus with “clean” foodstuffs and all measures of radiation protection. In this bulletin results of radiation monitoring of foodstuffs in local centers of radiation control (LCRC) of Gomel, Brest, Mogilyov and Minsk regions in the 1st quarter 2002 are submitted.
In the bulletin are submitted results of measurements on WBC of the accumulation of radio-nuclides of caesium-137 in an organism of inhabitants in 152 villages of Chernobyl regions of Belarus, received at performance of the first stage of the program of teamwork under the German-Belarusian project “Highly irradiated children of Belarus”. In April-May 2002 employees of the Research center in Juelich (Germany) brought to Minsk mobile spectrometer installation “Canberra” that has allowed to carry out interlaboratory checking of indications of 7 WBC’s of Institute “Belrad” and WBC “Canberra” KFJ (Juelich) as on phantoms of the Belarus center of certification of Gosstandart, and at comparative measurements of accumulation of caesium-137 in an organism of children from Dobrush, whom were on rest in Children rehabilitation sanitation center “Zhdanovichi”, and children at school and kindergarten of Litvinovichi of Korma district of Gomel region. Comparative measurements on WBC have shown high sensitivity of WBC “Screener-3M” of the Institute “Belrad” (150-200 Bq on all body). Distinction in measurements on WBC “Canberra” and “Screener-3M” did not exceed 10%.

Not accident, not accident, and simply a fire?

(remarks on fields of the report of the United Nations 2002)
D.M.Grodzinsky (Ukraine), V.B.Nesterenko (Belarus), A.V.Yablokov (Russia)

In July-August 2001 six experts from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine on behalf of the organizations of the United Nations have collected “duly and authentic” “the information on humanitarian consequences of accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant”, and on a basis of “the strict analysis of the actual information”, received as a result of supervision and from authorities in the contaminated territories, from representatives of the State committee on hydrometeorology and Chernobyl committee of Belarus, the Ministry of Emergency Measures, the Center on radiation medicine, Institute of sociology and the Supreme Rada of Ukraine, and also NPO “Typhoon” and two scientific institutes of the Russian Academy of sciences, which absent in the official directory of the Russian Academy of Science (“Laboratory of ecological and medical dosimetry of the Russian Academy of Science” and “Institute of nuclear safety of the Russian Academy of Science”), and also with use of Reports on national Chernobyl programs (materials of State committee on Chernobyl and the Ministry of Education of Belarus are mentioned, the Ministry of Emergency Measures of Ukraine and the Report on quality of water in Bryansk region of Russia) and the analysis of “scientific articles, Normative documents and other publications”, have developed recommendations to the international community and the governments of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia under the decision of the problems connected to consequences of Chernobyl accident. This Report as the book in English and Russian languages named “Humanitarian consequences of accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant. Strategy of rehabilitation” has been solemnly submitted to mass media and public in February 2002, in New York, Minsk, Kiev and Moscow.
There are two polar points of view to Chernobyl. These positions have been reflected and in structures of the United Nations: the Scientific commission on action of nuclear radiation of the United Nations (UNSCAR), and also International agency on atomic energy (IAEA) and the World health organization (WHO) amicably speak, that except about 1800 additional cases of disease of thyroid gland cancer after an irradiation at children's age, and also death of several dozens of “liquidators”, no other reliably established consequences of the Chernobyl irradiation were found. On the other hand, the Secretary general of United Nations Kofi Annan wrote in 2000 in the foreword to the publication of Office of the United Nations on coordination of humanitarian aid: “The exact number of victims, maybe, never becomes known. But three million children demanding treatment and not up to 2016, but earlier, give us performance about number of those who can be ill seriously … their future life will be deformed by it, as well as their childhood. Many will die prematurely. Really we shall give them to live and die, thinking, what the world is indifferent to their distress?”
The report of the United Nations 2002 represents attempt somehow to smooth these distinctions in the points of view – not without reason among the organizations which sponsored it, there were also WHO, known for its sympathies to the nuclear industry, and Children's Fund of the United Nations (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the Office of the United Nations on coordination of humanitarian aid (UN OCHA). The tragedy of Chernobyl has mentioned millions and became event of a world scale, having reflected and technocratic adventurism of atomic scientist, meanness and heroism, both sufferings, and solidarity of people. Chernobyl till now continues to put before Mankind many questions, and one of the main – what to do, how to reduce human sufferings, how to return to life the affected territories into normal channel. Hugely not only human, but also economic measurement of problem – many are dozens of billions of dollars spent already, it is necessary to spend even more.
In the Report of the United Nations are spoken many completely correct words about importance of the organization of the effective international help, and are offered many actions which, undoubtedly, will promote consolidations of efforts of the international community. It is difficult not to agree with authors of the Report, that “the full, true and exact information on consequences of accident” is necessary and that any reasons should be exposed to “all-round and fair examination”. Attentive acquaintance to the Report made conclusion what exactly of reliability, completeness, and objectivity does not suffice the document of the United Nations.
In the Report it is spoken, that, radioactive deposits “will continue to affect a life of rural population within several decades”. It is not so. Even essentially reduced contamination on caesium and strontium will continue to influence several hundreds years (ten half-life periods), and the territories contaminated with plutonium and americium, will be dangerous practically forever – many millennia. By the way, the life has shown, what even at reduction of volumes of radioactivity (that inevitably occurs during natural transformation of radionuclides) radioactive contamination of people can not be reduced, and even is increasing and this is observed now everywhere in Chernobyl territories.
Scientifically incorrectly is also the statement, that risks connected with significant initial radiation influence already were realized. It is known, that radiation causes change of genetic material (mutation), and these changes of genetic material are handed down. Already therefore, unfortunately, Chernobyl radiation impact will sound during many following generations. Besides it is known also, that cancers induced by radiation are shown not at once: cancer of breast and lungs - in 20 years, cancer of a stomach, cancroids, and cancer of rectum – in 30 years. So only after 2016 it will be possible to say, that risks for those who has got under the first impact of radiation in 1986, were realized.
Groundless fears will help nobody. However and levity concerning radiation is dangerous. A deceit the statement looks, that in affected territories it is possible “to create a favorable environment”. The environment here will be always adverse. Other business, as in such adverse environment is possible to adjust somehow rather safe life if to observe a lot of rules and restrictions (see further). But the life here during centuries will demand various safety measures.
Developing the thesis about an opportunity of safe residing in the affected territories, authors approve, that there are “kinds of agricultural production which can be raised safely on soils, contaminated by radionuclides”. It is also the half-truth. Really, there are kinds of plants, which accumulate much less radionuclides from soil, than other kinds. For example, in a grain of wheat in the contaminated territory is collected in five times less of radioactive strontium, than at barley or peas, in tubers of potatoes – in two times less than in beet, etc. Even different kinds of trees differ on features of accumulation of radionuclides. However there are no kinds of plants, which would not extend radionuclides from soil at all. It means, that the radiation control over the contents of radionuclides in food should be carried out and in the future also.
Scientifically wrongly is central position of environmental part of the Report – the offer to use “potential” of Chernobyl territories for “performance of the international obligations of three countries on preservation of biodiversity”, “… to use for preservation of a biodiversity” ecosystems of forests and marshes. Externally rich in absence of human influence Chernobyl zone cannot be considered as reserve for normal and healthy life. Researches and in Chernobyl territories, and in territories of the East-Ural radioactive trace, and on others radiation contaminated territories in the past (for example, in region of Totsk explosion in the Orenburg region) have shown, that in populations of the alive organisms which have transferred radiation impact, arises and is shown genetic instability through dozens generations. And health of the animals and plants that born on contaminated territory is under the big question. For example, the majority of birds do not come back into native places after wintering that speak about their significant destruction in the first winter. The genetic device of the investigated kinds of animals and plants on contaminated territories is affected. The biodiversity in such territories is safe only externally. Actually, health of this environment is seriously broken. These territories are not reserves of alive, and a certain cancer tumour on a body of wildlife. From the scientific point of view it is necessary to bring attention to the question not about use of this radioactive biodiversity, and about protection against it of other populations.
But, perhaps, the most serious deviations from the truth at authors of the Report are connected to the analysis of disease of people on territories contaminated by radiation.
The statement is incorrect, that the growth of congenital developmental anomalies (CDA) connected to an additional irradiation, is not supported with the statistical data – such data are. So, for example, as a whole across Belarus since 1986 to 1995 frequency of cases of large congenital developmental anomalies (bifurcation of a lip and palate, anomaly of structure of finiteness, infringements in development of the central nervous and blood systems, overgrowth of gullet, anus) has increased on 40% (with 12 up to 17 on of 1,000 newborns) and if to take into account and the abortions made under medical indications – up to 22 (that is, more than on 80%). On other data, during 1988-1999 frequency of CDA in Belarus has increased more than twice. The data on essential growth of CDA are also for Ukrainian and Russian contaminated territories.

Occurrence of congenital developmental anomalies (on 100,000 children)
in Bryansk and Kaluga region (Baleva, etc., 2001)

Region 1990 1998 Increase
Kaluga 104.7 352.6 In 3.4 times
Bryansk 32.3 404.26 In 12.5 times

As on duty objection against the account of such data serves that, it is not the present increase in disease, and effect of screening (more careful purposeful research). But this effect cannot be at research of the same region, same people and the same methods. However in more contaminated regions the increase of number of CDA is found out. Such data are and for some regions of Belarus (Gomel, Mogilyov), both Ukraine (Zhitomir), and Russia (Bryansk). Due to well adjusted statistics, such data were collected even in Germany: here recently at the detailed analysis of medical statistics, is found out small, but statistically caught peak of number of CDA in Bavarian (the most injured part from Chernobyl losses of Southern Germany) but. He falls on November-December, 1987, – in 7 months after the maximal concentration of cesium in body of mothers. Developing in womb of mother the fruit on the second month of pregnancy appeared especially subjected to teratogenic (teratos – on Greek – the ugly creature) influence of radionuclides. In the contaminated territories of Belarus growth of lot of the newborns died from developmental anomalies of nervous system, growth of stillbirths is marked, – all this also reflects occurrence of incompatible with life changes of development of fruit under action of even rather small doses of radiation. Catastrophic deterioration of health of children on all classes of illnesses in Chernobyl territories does not cause doubts: in Chernobyl territories in 1985 were more than 80% of practically healthy children and in 2000 – less than 20%. In southern, especially injured districts of the Gomel region, there are practically no healthy children.
Scientifically it is not correct to approve (as it is made in the Report), that the increase in death rate “cannot be result of Chernobyl” only because, such increase occurs across all former USSR. Really, death rate has increased on all space of the former USSR. But, first, appreciable growth has taken place after 1986, and is possible, that Chernobyl emission which has covered territories where lived more than half of population of the USSR, could be one of the reasons of such growth. Second, especially significant growth of death rate occurs in strongly contaminated territories.

Death rate (on 1,000 people) in Bryansk region in 1998-1999 (Komogortseva, 2001)

Death rate regions On region On three most radiation contaminated
Infantile 10.2 17.2
General 16.3 20.1-22.7

The statement of the Report is crafty, that “the structure of disease in injured territories is still similar to disease which is observed in other parts of former Soviet Union”. There, where is though any reliable statistics, it is visible, that except for increase in death rate, after accident there was an appreciable increase in number of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. Among other changes in structure of disease of the population in radiation contaminated territories (compared with the population of the nearly located territories similar on social and economic conditions):

  • Increase of number of the weakened and sick newborns;
  • Increase of number of genetic infringements and congenital developmental anomalies;
  • Iincrease of number of cancer diseases (not only cancers of thyroid gland);
  • Infringement (delay) of intellectual (psychological) development;
  • Growth of number of psychiatric diseases (including – schizophrenia);
  • Infringement of immunity and hormonal (endocrine) status;
  • Growth of number of diseases of bodies of blood circulation and lymphatic system, respiratory and urinogenital system, integument, diseases endocrine gland and body of eyesight;
  • Abnormal growth of children, abnormal exhaustions;
  • The slowed down recovery after illnesses;
  • Accelerated consenescence.

The list of diseases induced by Chernobyl contamination includes dozens of illnesses. And they cannot be explained neither effect of screening, nor socio-economic factors as distinctions come to light between the territories differing only on radiation burden. In the Report of the United Nations on some from listed diseases it is mentioned, but with introductions “not absolutely clearly”, “probably, not unreasonably”, “it is not supported with the statistical data”. Behind these expressions disappears obvious default even statistically quite authentic data. One concrete example. In the Report occurrence of a cataract at the liquidators who have received the big doses of an irradiation is mentioned among the so-called “determined” consequences of accident. Thus it is held back, that similar changes are observed not only at liquidators, but also in the contaminated territories. Thus at evacuated from zone of strictly control (more than 40 Ci/km2) they even are more expressed, than at liquidators.

Frequency of primary disease of cataract (on 100,000 people)
in 1993 and 1994 in Belarus (Goncharova, 2000)

Average frequency in the country In a zone 1-15 Ci/km2 In a zone more than 15 Ci/km2 Evacuated from zone of more than 40 Ci/km2 Liquidators
1993 136.2 189.6 225.8 354.9 281.4
1994 146.1 196.0 365.9 425.0 420.0

Authors of the Report at the analysis of material on medical and biological consequences of accident have admitted two methodological mistakes. The first mistake concerns logic of the argument. In many places of the Report it is spoken about necessity of “reliable and international–justified scientific researches”, “authentically established consequences”, “methodically proved unbiased scientific researches”, “conformity with international-recognized scientific reports”, “authoritative proofs”, “high-quality scientific researches”, “international-recognized programs of scientific researches”, “reliability and objectivity of received results”, meaning, that the big number of collected data does not respond these criteria. Such ignoring is possible only in one case: after comparison of the data received not “in conformity with international-recognized scientific reports”, with the data received with use of these reports. If such comparison will show, that results of researches on the same problem in one and those regions (but carried out on different techniques) do not coincide, then it is possible and proved to bring an attention to the question on verification. While such comparison it is not made, incorrectly methodologically (and it is invalid ethically) to ignore already executed scientific researches. Such ignoring speaks only about obviously prejudiced attitude to results of the scientific researches speaking about dangerous shifts in a state of health on radiation-contaminated territories. But even if to agree with authors of the Report and to reject thousand of researches executed not how they consider correct, it is methodologically incorrect to judge on the basis of data absence about absence of effects.
The second methodological mistake of authors of the Report – ignoring of principle of precaution. The history of mankind shows, that if consequences of any action are insufficiently clear to us, it is necessary to issue that follows consequences could be negative, instead of positive. Authors of the Report recognize, that many parties and consequences of Chernobyl accident are not clear yet, including: the initial doses received in the first days after accident, feature of a geographic distribution of dropped out radionuclides, the forecast of an irradiation of inhabitants of radiation contaminated territories for the future, medical and genetic consequences not enough clear moments of influence of radiation. Moreover, in the Report it is spoken about necessity of research of questions “about possible connection between a cancer of breast at young women and at feeding at the moment of accident and radiation”, “between radiation and cancer of a breast, cancer of thyroid gland at adults and health of liquidators”; “distributions of cesium in biological fabrics and risk of specific damages”, “possible influence of radiation on intra-uterine development”. How, recognizing thus insufficiency of modern scientific knowledge, authors of the Report, nevertheless, consider possible to assert about “ exaggeration of danger of an irradiation for health of the people”? Having recognized, that we do not know while all dangers, will approve, nevertheless, that safely!
Surprises also that, having named, undoubtedly, the important subjects for the future scientific researches, authors of the Report have not mentioned at all a lot of other questions of influence of radiation, deserving not less urgent studying. Among them influence of radiation:

  • On genetic health of the population;
  • On the central nervous system and organs of sense;
  • On defeat of endothelium (pavement of vessels);
  • On infringement of immunity;
  • On infringement of hormonal system;
  • On accelerated consenescence of an organism;
  • On increase in death rate of different age groups.

In the recommendations authors of the Report have missed and many other essentially important positions that puts under doubt all strategy of actions offered by them, including “the new approach” (items 1.58, 159), based on allocation of three stages in the decision of the Chernobyl problem (stages “decisions of extreme problems”, 1986-2001, “restoration”, 2002-2012 and “managements” after 2012). Causes fear that authors suggest only by 2012 “to execute deeper analysis of a state of affairs …, to define current … needs for such regions as public health services, ecology and scientific researches”. It seems to us, it is necessary to do it continuously and constantly, not expecting the end of the next decade.
Departing from objectivity declared by them (and from the basic purpose of the report), authors of the Report show frankly benevolent attitude to the nuclear industry - an original cause of accident. Nuclear scientists for a long time speak, that Chernobyl – is no more than technological accident where some dozens of people were lost, less than 2000 were ill by cancer of a thyroid gland (which is well treated), its consequences are exaggerated and, basically, connected to a radiophobia and unreasoned resettlements, and that it is time “to forget Chernobyl” for a long time. Though authors right at the beginning of the Report what for have declared, that worked “at absence of pressure on the part of any interested peoples and organizations ”, they in a unison with nuclear scientists approve, that fears of the population concerning radiation contamination and its consequences “unreasonable” and even “provoked”. Authors of the Report have gone in this respect further than nuclear scientists and instead of a word “accident” speak already simply about “a fire on Chernobyl NPP”, as a source of radionuclides. To speak so - incorrectly in essence as emission of radionuclides occurred not as a result of a fire but as summary explosion of nuclear reactor. A fire on the nuclear power plant is the secondary event. Use of ”fire” terminology has also obviously emotional meaning: one business when it is spoken about accident, and absolutely other business if the question is only a fire.
Authors of the Report do not hide the concern in development of the nuclear industry, speaking that “the destiny of the population of injured villages and cities will remain in the center of each new discussion about development of power in the future decade ” and “the global power companies are interested in the decision of these problems and discussion of the future of nuclear power not from the point of view of emotions, and from the point of view of arguments and the facts”. Whether it is strange, why authors of the analysis of humanitarian accident are so anxious about development of nuclear energy?
Repeating for nuclear scientists, that “the brightest determined effect” after Chernobyl was death after accident of 39 people strongly irradiated, authors of the Report hold back about the data of “the Union Chernobyl” – associations of participants of liquidation of consequences of accident (“liquidators”) that almost 70 percent of liquidators are sick (infringements in endocrine system in 10 times more often, than on the average across Russia, mental frustration – five times, illnesses of system of blood circulation and digestion – are twice more often, than on the average across Russia). Liquidators become invalids twice more often, than other Russians, death rate among them in some times exceeds an average parameter. In general, the destiny of 600 thousand liquidators is the major humanitarian aspect of accident too, to which it would be necessary to draw attention of the United Nations. It is already known, that the infringements of genetic material received by them are handed down.
Authors of the report are actually solidary with nuclear scientists whom for a long time speak, that the most terrible consequence of Chernobyl was a stop of development of the nuclear industry, and that “it is time to forget Chernobyl”. The governments of all countries injured from Chernobyl, certainly, are interested in minimization of charges on consequences of Chernobyl. For those and others, then it will be less known about radiogenic illnesses, than better. This unwillingness to learn the bitter truth is expressed in turning Chernobyl researches in budgetary establishments, downturn of the status of the bodies engaged in social problems of Chernobyl, and even direct discharge from scientific researches of the most active and uncompromising researchers of Chernobyl contamination (as it happened in Belarus with professor Ju.Bandazhevski).
To the analysis of consequences of Chernobyl accident now there is the same that has taken place with finding-out of medical and radiological consequences of bombardments of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the beginning of August 1945. Then Occupational Forces have forbidden any researches on influence of radiation and have resolved them only with 1950 – only four and a half year later when the huge quantity of the most important information on influence of radiation has been forever lost. These shortened data of medical statistics are based into all modern norms of radiation safety. These norms designed without taking into account-increased destruction of the most sensitive groups of the population (children, old men, sick), do not provide our reliable protection. As has recognized recently one of leading Russian experts on radiation safety the head of Moscow combine “Radon”, “… Radioactive norms from the very beginning were formed as a curtsey aside nuclear branch”. In result – many millions victims in XX century from development of the nuclear industry, first of all, certainly, from nuclear tests in an atmosphere, but also and from a x-ray irradiation, from processing of nuclear spent fuel, from usual operation of nuclear power plants.
The same that it was possible to make by nuclear scientists with the data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, on our eyes occurs to the Chernobyl data. To us suggest to declare all collected by many researchers of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia material on influence of radiation insufficiently scientifically proved, and to start to study consequences of accident from clean sheet in fifteen years after accident (when huge quantity of the data it is impossible to receive again). What it is necessary to do, what effective strategy of actions should be? We shall try to outline its basic contours.
Though about any full rehabilitation of the affected territories from the scientific point of view it is not necessary to speak, it is possible and it is necessary to undertake a complex of measures on minimization of consequences of this accident. First of all, it was necessary to proceed as soon as possible from inexact definition of radiation burden to people, considered on density of contamination of territory, to definition of individual radiation burden in exact sense of this concept. Even in one village different inhabitants can receive very different doses. It depends on set of the reasons (spotty losses of radiation, a diet and so forth). Effective strategy of the aid should be maximum address - first of all to help those who has more suffered and is in bigger danger. Scientific bases for such individualized approach are as whole body counters (WBC), and as the individual analysis of size of the irradiation received for all life with the help of EPR-DOSIMETRY (on enamel of a teeth), and on changes in molecules of fibers (FISH-method.) can be for certain found and other objective methods of individual dosimeter if on this direction to pay special attention of scientists and to allocate corresponding means.
Reconstruction of contamination also adjoins to the same direction of researches in the first days and weeks after accident. Then radiation burdens at expense of short living radionuclides in hundreds and thousand times more significant, than modern. Thus influenced not only iodine-131, but also lantan-140, tellurium-132, neptunium-239, xenon-133, barium-140 and others. It is possible, that remaining now not quite understood observable effects could receive the argued explanation by powerful short-term influence of these rare radionuclides.
At the United Nations the Insurance fund for injured from accidents on the nuclear power plant should be created. In the world about 430 reactors operates, they grow old, the risk of accidents grows and, undoubtedly, we are expected with new heavy accidents on the nuclear power plant. Such fund should be created at the expense of obligatory deductions from sale of the electric power by the countries – owners of the nuclear power plants.
As now up to 90% of dose burden inhabitants of Chernobyl regions receive from contaminated local foodstuffs, it is necessary long-term (not one decade) radiation monitoring of foodstuffs and individual accumulation of radionuclides, first of all at children (double measurement in one year on WBC). Maps of contamination of population (first of all children) radionuclides should be constructed and regions of special attention should be selected.
Radiation protection of the population should be under construction on annual dose burden of the most irradiated critical group. In each settlement measurement on WBC should be carried out at authentic sample of various social groups (enough about 20% of total population). Dose limits (1 mZv/year for adults) should be accepted for critical, most irradiated group (more than 10 people) of inhabitants of village. In Belarus from 2001, the law “About social protection of the citizens injured from accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant” is added by very important requirement that protective actions should proceed at reduction of dose burden from 1 mZv/year up to 0.1 mZv/year.
In Chernobyl regions of CIS live more than 4 million people, including about 1 million children. The establishment and observance of rigid allowable levels of the contents of radionuclides in foodstuffs would be the important measure of radiation protection. Contamination of milk by radionuclides is a sufficient parameter of health hazard to children in this settlement. According to data of the Ministry of Health of Belarus in 2001, in 1,100 villages the contents of caesium-137 in milk exceeded 50Bq/l, and in 350 villages – 100 Bq/l.
As, despite of 2-3-times meals to children at schools and kindergartens, medical examination, improvement and treatment, entering of additional mineral fertilizers on agricultural lands, is not possible to lower levels of accumulation of caesium-137 at children to 30-50 Bq/kg, it is necessary to toughen allowable norms of the contents of radionuclides in food stuffs. The European emergency specifications of dose limit in 1 mZv/year, the allowable contents of caesium-137 in milk for adults up to 1,000 Bq/l and for children – 400 Bq/l, established on the basis of factors of risk according to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, are unacceptable. For a long-term chronic irradiation after Chernobyl these specifications should be toughened at 10-20 times (RDU on an internal annual dose to 0.1 mZv/year that correspond to 30-40 Bq/kg of body weight).
Determining part of medical researches should be the international projects by definition of dose dependences of diseases from level of accumulation of radionuclides in an organism. It is a key way for an establishment of causal dependence of illnesses from consequences of Chernobyl accident. Professor Ju.I.Bandazhevsky before arrest has had time to establish such dose dependence of infringements of an electrocardiogram of heart and diseases of eye (cataract). Continuation of teamwork of physicists on inspection on WBC of levels of accumulation of radionuclides in an organism of children and physicians – on medical inspection of these children is necessary.
Are necessary also joint realization of radioecological education of the population and training of people on simple methods of radiation protection and prevention of intake of radionuclides in an organism with food. Steeping in salty water (2 table spoons of salt on 1 liter) of meat, mushrooms, fish allows to reduce the contents of caesium-137 in these products in 3-4 times. As in a countryside up to 60% of an annual dose is formed at the expense of intake of radionuclides with milk, separation of milk is necessary. Feeding of cows daily up to 1 kg of mixed fodders with a chemical sorbent (Prussian blue) reduces the contents of radiocaesium in milk and meat in 3-4 times.
In each region and settlement should be realized programs on entering once in three years on agricultural lands (first of all on people plots), on pastures, haymaking, in woods (in places of gathering of berries and mushrooms in radius of 10 kms from settlements) of mineral fertilizers. Entering of about 3 tons of calcium, 200 kg of potassium and 100 kg of phosphorus on 1 hectare reduce at 5-10 times transition of radionuclides from soil to plants. Effective for reduction of contamination by caesium-137 of berries and mushrooms there is an entering of potassium or lignin into forest ecosystems.
For removing of radionuclides from an organism is effective reception of natural sorbents on the basis of pectin: reception within a month of pectinaceous food additives not less than 4 times in one year (quarterly) is necessary. In Russia, Belarus and Ukraine there is a sufficient raw-material base (waste products of canneries) for manufacture of pectinaceous food additives.
stress, not from a radiophobia, not from mass resettlement (in Belarus has been moved only 140 thousand from 2 million of people, got under intensive Chernobyl emissions, the same concerns both Ukraine, and Russia), and from long action of small doses of radiation as a result of long-term constant consumption of local food stuffs contaminated by radionuclides of caesium-137.
To acceptance of effective measures of protection interfere not only lack of means, but also dual and inconsistent character of state policy (the desire to spend less, and from here aspiration to hide true scales of tragedy).
On the other hand, possessed experience shows, that measurement on WBC of 140 thousand children and carrying out of pectinaceous preventive maintenance to 45 thousand children with all named complex of protective measures in separate Chernobyl regions appears feasible even to small collectives of enthusiasts in some dozens of people. Considerably to weaken negative consequences of Chernobyl accident it is possible by rational use of available means.
Certainly, to our countries (first of all Belarus) without the purposeful and wide international help during the following several decades it is not possible to cope with the Chernobyl trouble. It is necessary to find means and to carry out the International projects in all injured regions. Such protection should proceed some decades while radionuclides will not leave from root-inhabited levels of the soil and manufacture of pure foodstuffs for all population will be provided.

Conclusion

  1. In the 1st quarter 2002, it was maintained 56 LCRC, financed by Goskomchernobyl, and 21 LCRC at schools of Chernobyl regions of Belarus – with the humanitarian help of Chernobyl initiatives of Germany.
  2. In the 1st quarter 2002, the local centers of the radiation control registered significant percent of samples with excess of RDU-99 on contents of caesium-137 in food stuffs and forages from private farms. Thus the percent of contaminated above RDU-99 samples was or at level of the similar period of 2001, or considerably exceeded this level.
    In Gomel region for the 1st quarter 2002, the percent of samples with excess of RDU-99 from total number of samples, analyzed by LCRC, has made 12.8% (in the 1st quarter of 2001 – 13.1%) with the maximal value in January – 14.0%; in Brest region – 19.1% (in the 1st quarter of 2001 – 19.6%) with the maximal value in January – 21.9%; in Mogilyov region – 5.6% with the maximal value in March – 9.2%.
    In LCRC in village Sivitsа of Volozhin district, the percent of samples with excess of RDU-99 has made in the 1st quarter of 2002 – 11.5% (in the 1st quarter of 2001 – 9.5%) with the maximal value in January – 15.6%.
  3. The analysis of data received in the 1st quarter 2002, from given local centers on research of contamination by caesium-137 of milk has shown the following results.
    On data of LCRC of Gomel region the percent of samples of milk with excess of RDU-99 has made 9.5% (in the 1st quarter of 2001- 9.3%) with the maximal value of activity 475 Bq/l in village Slobodkа of Kalinkovichi district in January 2002; on data of LCRCs of the Brest region the percent of samples of milk with excess of RDU-99 has made 28.1% (in the 1st quarter of 2001 – 22.9%) with the maximal value of activity – 1135 Bq/l in village Ol’mаny of Stolin district in March 2002.
    In LCRCs in Mogilyov and Minsk regions excess of RDU-99 in milk in the 1st quarter 2002 was not registered, that in the certain degree can be connected to small amount of LCRCs, working in these regions.
  4. In 2000-2002 was outlined the tendency of increase of relative quantity of milk samples contaminated above RDU-99 and other foodstuffs of local manufacture. This fact objectively demands strengthening and financing of protective measures in the private farms, directed on restriction of intake of radionuclides in food stuffs and in an organism of the people. Should be, at last: solve the problem of maintenance of private farms with “clean” forages, both in summer, and during the stall period of the maintenance of cattle; delivery in private farms of Ferro sin containing additives to mixed fodders and boluses; the culture of separation of contaminated by rаdionuclides milk and processing of other food stuffs should be introduced among peasants with the purpose of reduction of their radioactivity.
  5. At significant contamination by radionuclides of mushrooms and berries it is expedient to consider the measures developed and offered by Institute of forest of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (director academician V.A.Ipatjev) on formation in forests of so-called “biological partition”, on which it is achieved 2-10-times (in comparison with the control) decrease in accumulation of caesium-137 in mushrooms due to application of potash fertilizer (183 kg K2O/hа) or 2.5 t/gа of lignin; required financial expenses for realization of such protection – 5-10 US dollars on 1 hectar of forest.
  6. Significant achievement in radiation protection of children in Chernobyl regions of Belarus in last years was introduction at schools and kindergartens of these regions 2-3-times per day meal for children due to financing of purchase of food products at expense of the state Chernobyl program.
    Unfortunately, this most effective measure of radiation protection of children from the beginning of 2002 is cancelled under the initiative of the Ministry of Finance (by statement at Parliamentary hearings on April, 24 2002 by the deputy minister of the finance of Belarus) for economy and ordering of an expenditure of means from the budget.
  7. In the frameworks of joint German-Belarusian project StrSch 4,350 “Highly irradiated children of Belarus” processing of results of measurements on WBC of 145 thousand children in 152 villages of Chernobyl regions of Belarus is executed and are allocated 20,187 children from these villages for carrying out of monitoring on WBC of accumulation of caesium-137 in their organism, carrying out of regular intake of pectin food additives for purification of an organism from radionuclides and minimization of collective and annual doses of an irradiation.
  8. In reports of the United Nations “Humanitarian consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP. Strategy of rehabilitation” and World Bank “Review of consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP and programs on their overcoming” medical consequences of Chernobyl accident are biassedly submitted, the received authentic scientific data of the Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian scientists on negative consequences of action of small doses of radiation on health of the population are not taken into account:
  • On endocrine system;
  • On cardiovascular system;
  • On genetic health of the population;
  • On the central nervous system, bodies of sight and feelings;
  • On immune system;
  • On hormonal system;
  • On increase in death rate in different age groups, especially liquidators;
  • On female reproductive system.